Nursing-theory.org

Health as Expanding Consciousness

Health is an expansion of consciousness. According to Newman, “the theory of health as expanding consciousness was stimulated by concern for those for whom health as the absence of disease or disability is not possible. Nurses often relate to such people: people facing the uncertainty, debilitation, loss and eventual death associated with

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The Nursing Process

The nursing process is a set of steps followed by nurses in order to care for patients. How a particular nurse uses the nursing process varies based on the nurse, the patient, and the situation, but the process generally follows the same steps: assessment, diagnosis, plan, implementation, evaluation. The first step, assessment, is used to get

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Humanistic Model

This approach, called a holistic or humanistic approach, helps foster mental and emotional health in addition to physical health. Humanistic nursing theories have a foundation in the belief that patients can grow in a healthy and creative way. The model was created by Josephine Paterson and Loretta Zderad. Paterson and Zderad believed nursing

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Henderson's Nursing Need Theory

The theory’s definition of health is based on an individual’s ability to function independently as outlined in the fourteen components. Nurses need to stress the promotion of health and prevention, as well as the curing of diseases. According to Henderson’s model, good health is a challenge because it is affected by so many different

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Definition of Nursing

Nursing remained a helping profession within the field of health care, but with the changes made by Nightingale, it became recognized as a professional field rather than charity or opportunity for volunteer work. Nursing today. Nursing in modern society has stayed close to the definition created by Florence Nightingale. Essentially, nurses

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Methods of Nursing

A nursing method, like a nursing theory, is an approach to nursing. However, nursing methods deal more with the overall logistics of running a health care facility than how nurses deal with individual patients. Methods of nursing address how to keep a health care facility running smoothly so patients get the quality care they need, and nurses

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Orem's Self-Care Deficit Nursing Theory

The Self-Care Deficit Theory developed as a result of Dorothea E. Orem working toward her goal of improving the quality of nursing in general hospitals in her state. The model interrelates concepts in such a way as to create a different way of looking at a particular phenomenon. The theory is relatively simple, but generalizable to apply to a

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Johnson’s Behavior System Model

Health is a purposeful adaptive response to internal and external stimuli in order to maintain stability and control. The responses include physical, mental, emotional, and social realms. The primary goal of nursing is to foster equilibrium in the individual patient. One focus of nursing concerns the organized and integrated whole, but the

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Self-Efficacy Theory

Self-efficacy theory (SET) was first developed in 1977 by Albert Bandura. He first presented his theory in the Journal of Psychological Review. Titled "Self-Efficacy: Toward a Unifying Theory of Behavioral Change," he proposed SET as the determining force of behavior change. Clearly, behavioral change plays a big part in both nursing education and nursing care.

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Theories of Moral Development

The ethics of nursing are influenced by moral development, as nurses must develop a strong system of morals in order to uphold the strict ethics required of them. Kohlberg’s theories of moral development are divided into three levels that consist of a total of six stages. Everyone starts out at the first stage and then develops morally as

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Roy's Adaptation Model of Nursing

The key concepts of Roy’s Adaptation Model are made up of four components: person, health, environment, and nursing. According to Roy’s model, a person is a bio-psycho-social being in constant interaction with a changing environment. He or she uses innate and acquired mechanisms to adapt. The model includes people as individuals, as well as

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Life Perspective Rhythm Model

Health includes all the people and society that affect the client. To maintain optimum health requires the assistance of care providers, a client willing to change and follow guidelines for a healthful life and surrounding the client with supportive family and friends. Optimum health is the goal of nursing interactions which goes beyond

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Dr. Joyce Fitzgerald

Dr. Joyce Fitzpatrick is a nurse educator and advocate for nursing, geriatrics, psychological care, and nursing theory. Born in 1944, she developed her interest in health care at an early age, and she had a great desire to learn and participate in nursing as an educator and leader to her peers. She continued to obtain higher degrees in nursing

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Peplau's Theory of Interpersonal Relations

Peplau explains that nursing is therapeutic because it is a healing art, assisting a patient who is sick or in need of health care. It is also an interpersonal process because of the interaction between two or more individuals who have a common goal. The nurse and patient work together so both become mature and knowledgeable in the care process

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Lawrence Kohlberg

Lawrence Kohlberg was a psychologist and nursing theorist from America. He’s known for his Theories of Moral Development. His work focused on philosophers such as James Mark Baldwin and George Herbert Mead. He combined the work of both these philosophers with his own study on human development. He also studied the findings from Jean Piaget, a

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Watson's Philosophy and Science of Caring

The Philosophy and Science of Caring has four major concepts: human being, health, environment/society, and nursing. Jean Watson refers to the human being as “a valued person in and of him or herself to be cared for, respected, nurtured, understood and assisted; in general a philosophical view of a person as a fully functional integrated self. Human is viewed as greater …

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