The Definition of Health: Towards New Perspectives
The definition of health is not just a theoretical issue, because it has many implications for practice, policy, and health services. The current definition of health, formulated by the WHO, is no longer adequate for dealing with the new challenges in health care systems. Despite many attempts to re …
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United States: Health System Review
This analysis of the US health system reviews the developments in organization and governance, health financing, healthcare provision, health reforms and health system performance. The US health system has both considerable strengths and notable weaknesses. It has a large and well-trained health wor …
Health and safety (consultation with employees
The Health and Safety Commission (HSC) introduced the Health and Safety (Consultation with Employees) Regulations 1996 (HSCER) on 1st October, 1996. The HSCER 'top up' the existing Safety Representatives and Safety Committees Regulations 1997 (SRSCR). The HSCER require employers to consult with all …
Health promotion overview: evidence-based strategies for
Health promotion practice has evolved over the past four decades in response to the rising rates of chronic disease. The focus of health promotion is attaining wellness by managing modifiable risk factors, such as smoking, diet, or physical activity. Occupational health nurses are often asked to con …
The health literacy skills framework
The Health Literacy Skills framework hypothesizes the relations between health literacy and health-related outcomes and depicts how health literacy functions at the level of the individual. The framework also reflects how factors external to the individual (e.g., family, setting, community, culture, and media) influence the constructs and
U.S. disparities in health: descriptions, causes, and
Eliminating health disparities is a fundamental, though not always explicit, goal of public health research and practice. There is a burgeoning literature in this area, but a number of unresolved issues remain. These include the definition of what constitutes a disparity, the relationship of differe …
The impact of the COVID-19 epidemic on mental health …
Objective: The COVID-19 pandemic has been a period of upheaval for college students. The objective of this study was to assess the factors associated with the increased levels of mental health burden among a sample of undergraduate college students in Northern New Jersey, the region of the U.S. severely impacted by the outbreak of COVID-19.
Racial Disparities in Health Care Utilization at the End
Purpose: Racial and ethnic disparities in cancer care near the end of life (EOL) have been recognized, but EOL care experienced by Medicaid beneficiaries is not well understood. We assessed the prevalence of aggressive EOL care and hospice enrollment for Medicaid beneficiaries and determined whether racial and ethnic disparities exist.
Concussion Symptom Underreporting Among Incoming …
Affiliations 1 Center of Alcohol Studies, Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, New Brunswick, New Jersey.; 2 Department of Cardiology - Critical Care, New York Presbyterian/Weill Cornell Medical Center, New York, NY.; 3 Atlantic Sports Health, Morristown, NJ.; 4 Real Prevention, LLC, Clifton, New Jersey; and.; 5 Department of Kinesiology and Health, Rutgers, The State University of New
HPV Vaccine Intent among Adult Women Receiving Care …
Human papillomavirus (HPV) is a disease that exacts substantial costs in human life and public health expenditures. Fortunately, a vaccine exists that can mitigate these costs. This study reports the development and evaluation of the intervention designed to overcome these barriers by using cultural …
Health information systems: the foundations of public health
Public health decision-making is critically dependent on the timely availability of sound data. The role of health information systems is to generate, analyse and disseminate such data. In practice, health information systems rarely function systematically. The products of historical, social and eco …
Models of health and disease
This paper describes and analyses six models of health and disease. These are: religious, biomedical, psychosomatic, humanistic, existential and transpersonal. Of these six models, only one was unequivocally reductionist: the biomedical. The others were all holistic. The religious, humanistic and tr …
What is health economics
This paper describes the principles of economics and their application to the promotion, protection and restoration of oral health in populations and the planning, management and delivery of oral health care. After illustrating the economic determinants of oral health, the demand for oral health car …
Adverse health effects of 5G mobile networking technology
Affiliations. 1 Research Affiliate, School of Public Policy, Georgia Institute of Technology, Georgia, United States. Electronic address: [email protected] 2 Toxicology and Health Effects of Electromagnetism, McGill University, Canada. 3 Molecular Pharmacology, Einstein Center of Toxicology, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, United States.
Health, Health-Related Quality of Life, and Quality of
The terms health, health-related quality of life (HRQoL), and quality of life (QoL) are used interchangeably. Given that these are three key terms in the literature, their appropriate and clear use is important. This paper reviews the history and definitions of the terms and considers how they have …
The health equity measurement framework: a comprehensive
The Health Equity Measurement Framework (HEMF) addresses these gaps by providing a more encompassing view of the multitude of SDOH and drivers of health service utilisation and by guiding quantitative analysis for public health surveillance and policy development.
Health economics in public health
Background: Economic analysis is an important tool in deciding how to allocate scarce public health resources; however, there is currently a dearth of such analysis by public health researchers. Methods: Public health researchers and practitioners were surveyed to determine their current use of health economics and to identify barriers to use as well as potential strategies to decrease those
Health policy and public health implications of obesity in
Affiliations 1 Global Health Institute, School of Public Health, Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an, China. Electronic address: [email protected] 2 Department of Health Policy and Management, West China School of Public Health and West China Fourth Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu, China.; 3 Global Health Institute, School of Public Health, Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an, China.
Health promotion and health education: advancing the
Background: Health education and health promotion activities are a fundamental requirement for all health professionals. These two paradigms are closely related but are not inter-dependent. Despite this, it is known that many nurses confuse the terms and use them interchangeably.
Prevalence of Health Misinformation on Social Media
The prevalence of health misinformation was the highest on Twitter and on issues related to smoking products and drugs. However, misinformation on major public health issues, such as vaccines and diseases, was also high. Our study offers a comprehensive characterization of …
The social determinants of health and health outcomes
Objective: To synthesize the best available evidence on the relationship between the social determinants of health and health outcomes among adults during the COVID-19 pandemic. Introduction: COVID-19 has created widespread global transmission. Rapid increase in individuals infected with COVID-19 prompted significant public health responses from governments globally.
Understanding and Responding to Health Literacy as a
Health literacy is a midstream determinant of health but not a panacea for addressing health inequities created by the maldistribution of opportunity and resources. It is possible to optimize the contribution health literacy makes in mediating the causes and effects of established social determinants of health.
The triple aim: care, health, and cost
Improving the U.S. health care system requires simultaneous pursuit of three aims: improving the experience of care, improving the health of populations, and reducing per capita costs of health care. Preconditions for this include the enrollment of an identified population, a commitment to universal …
Mental health care of health workers during Covid-19
The promotion and protection activities in mental health to face the health emergency generated by COVID-19 worldwide can include coordinated actions between workers, health teams and health institutions as part of a comprehensive, community care, co-responsible and sustained over time.
Health capability: conceptualization and operationalization
Conceptually, health capability illuminates the conditions that affect health and one's ability to make health choices. By respecting the health consequences individuals face and their health agency, health capability offers promise for finding a balance between paternalism and autonomy. I offer a conceptual model of health capability and
Updating Health Literacy for Healthy People 2030: Defining
The updated definition is intended to advance Healthy People 2030's health literacy goals particularly as more organizations in public health and other sectors acknowledge their role in the delivery of quality health information and services.
A public health model of the social determinants of health
As we move forward in the new century, epidemiologists and public health practitioners are faced with the challenge of reviewing the current direction of epidemiology and its links with public health. While the history of epidemiology has been a successful and productive one, there is a danger that …
Impact of COVID-19 pandemic on mental health: An
The highest level of mental health difficulties were found in approximately 10% of the population. Findings suggest that public health initiatives should target people without social support and those whose finances worsen as a result of the lockdown. Interventions that promote psychological flexibility may mitigate the impact of the pandemic.
Healthy China 2030, a breakthrough for improving health
China has the largest population in the world, and its health levels have greatly affected the healthy development of the population of the world. Healthy China 2030 is a breakthrough for ensuring that the Chinese population have access to health, through advocating the whole society's participation …
Tracking development assistance for health and for COVID
Background: The rapid spread of COVID-19 renewed the focus on how health systems across the globe are financed, especially during public health emergencies. Development assistance is an important source of health financing in many low-income countries, yet little is known about how much of this funding was disbursed for COVID-19.
Rapid Systematic Review: The Impact of Social Isolation
Of these, 63 studies reported on the impact of social isolation and loneliness on the mental health of previously healthy children and adolescents (n = 51,576; mean age 15.3 years). In all, 61 studies were observational, 18 were longitudinal, and 43 were cross-sectional studies assessing self-reported loneliness in healthy children and adolescents.
Physician adoption of electronic health record systems
Data from the 2011 Physician Workflow study In 2011, 55% of physicians had adopted an electronic health record (EHR) system. About three-quarters of physicians who have adopted an EHR system reported that their system meets federal "meaningful use" criteria. Eighty-five …
Living in poverty and its effects on health
Poverty has been identified as the greatest threat to health. Generally speaking, poor people are sick more often than wealthier people, and poor people die younger due to poorer economic, social, political and physical conditions. The article explains the difference between relative poverty and abs …
Culture, Race, and Health: Implications for Racial
Building a culture of health and achieving health equity requires that we assess cultural racism in a more meaningful way. Cultural processes are commonly referenced in health inequity scholarship, but the empirical literature generally lags behind the conceptual emphasis. A rich literature across d …
Health benefits of Moringa oleifera
Moringa oleifera is a multi-purpose herbal plant used as human food and an alternative for medicinal purposes worldwide. It has been identified by researchers as a plant with numerous health benefits including nutritional and medicinal advantages.
Social marketing in public health
Social marketing, the use of marketing to design and implement programs to promote socially beneficial behavior change, has grown in popularity and usage within the public health community. Despite this growth, many public health professionals have an incomplete understanding of the field. To advanc …
Meat consumption, health, and the environment
Both the global average per capita consumption of meat and the total amount of meat consumed are rising, driven by increasing average individual incomes and by population growth. The consumption of different types of meat and meat products has substantial effects on people's health, and livestock pr …
Pregnancy as a Window to Future Cardiovascular Health
The National Institute of Child Health and Human Development's Nulliparous Pregnancy Outcomes Study-Monitoring Mothers-to-Be (nuMoM2b) Heart Health Study (HHS) was designed to investigate the relationships between adverse pregnancy outcomes and modifiable risk …
Health inequalities among minority populations
There are several challenges facing scholars studying health inequalities among minority populations. Primary among these challenges are developing adequate measures of social inequality and introducing appropriate strategies for eliminating health disparities. More research is sorely needed on both …
Powerlessness, empowerment, and health: implications for
PURPOSE AND SCOPE. This article reviews the health and social science research relevant to both the role of powerlessness as a risk factor for disease, and the role of empowerment as a health-enhancing strategy. The research literature surveyed includes studies that address these key concepts from t …
Germany: Health system review
A key feature of the health care delivery system in Germany is the clear institutional separation between public health services, ambulatory care and hospital (inpatient) care. This has increasingly been perceived as a barrier to change and so provisions for integrated care are being introduced with the aim of improving cooperation between
Increased Inequalities in Health Resource and Access to
Health professionals and hospital beds per 1000 population were used for measuring health resources, and the hospitalization rate was used for access. Descriptive analysis and the fixed effect model were used in this study. Health resources and access increased by about 50% between 2008 and 2014 in …
Sleep disorders, health, and safety in police officers
Context: Sleep disorders often remain undiagnosed. Untreated sleep disorders among police officers may adversely affect their health and safety and pose a risk to the public. Objective: To quantify associations between sleep disorder risk and self-reported health, safety, and performance outcomes in police officers. Design, setting, and participants: Cross-sectional and prospective cohort
Sleep, Health, and Society
Biological needs for sleep are met by engaging in behaviors that are largely influenced by the environment, social norms and demands, and societal influences and pressures. Insufficient sleep duration and sleep disorders such as insomnia and sleep apnea are highly prevalent in the US population. Thi …
Effectiveness of mRNA Covid-19 Vaccine among U.S. Health
Background: The prioritization of U.S. health care personnel for early receipt of messenger RNA (mRNA) vaccines against severe acute respiratory disease coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the virus that causes coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19), allowed for the evaluation of the effectiveness of these new vaccines in a real-world setting. Methods: We conducted a test-negative case-control study
Policy, politics and public health
If public health is the field that diagnoses and strives to cure social ills, then understanding political causes and cures for health problems should be an intrinsic part of the field. In this article, we argue that there is no support for the simple and common, implicit model of politics in which …